Ce lexique porte sur différents termes utilisés dans le domaine du droit international humanitaire. Il peut être considéré comme un instrument de travail pour celui qui doit utiliser ces concepts dans l’exercice de ses fonctions. Il comprend plus de 200 définitions relatives à l’action du personnel de santé engagé dans des conflits armés, quelques articles de fond, plus de 200 liens pointant vers d’autres sites en relation avec le droit international humanitaire. Les références des définitions sont souvent portées en bas de page (G pour les conventions de Genève et GP pour les protocoles additionnels). Les billets publiés ont pour vocation de stimuler la réflexion et ne représentent aucunement l’avis de l’auteur.
Publié dans Définitions

Bombardements d’hôpitaux : construire la preuve par l’image

Depuis 2015, près de cent structures médicales MSF ou soutenues par MSF ont été bombardées, l’extrême majorité d’entre elles en Syrie, mais aussi au Yémen, en Afghanistan, en Ukraine et au Soudan. Pour MSF, établir les faits et les responsabilités derrière chacun de ces bombardements est vital, afin de continuer à apporter des secours avec l’assurance minimale que les structures civiles seront protégées, et pour réclamer justice et réparation.Mais comment prendre à partie les perpétrateurs quand ceux-ci nient, contestent ou minimisent leur responsabilité, qualifiant leurs attaques de simple erreur ?
La dénonciation des perpétrateurs, un recours contre l’impunité
Face à ceux qui bombardent ses structures, son personnel médical et ses patients, MSF a peu d’options. Au-delà du dépôt de plainte devant les tribunaux des pays impliqués, elle peut demander l’ouverture d’une enquête indépendante et impartiale, via la Commission internationale humanitaire d’établissement des faits (IHFFC). Seul organe permanent mis en place pour enquêter spécifiquement sur les violations du droit international humanitaire, l’IHFFC ne peut agir qu’avec l’accord des Parties au conflit.
Dénoncer publiquement les auteurs du bombardement en espérant que le coup ainsi porté à leur image les incite à changer leurs pratiques reste souvent l’unique recours concret à la portée de MSF. A l’appui de ces dénonciations, les enquêtes basées sur des photographies et des vidéos amateurs, permettant de reconstituer les « scènes de crime », peuvent s’avérer très utiles. Ainsi, l’agence de recherche Forensic Architecture collecte et analyse les images prises lors d’un acte criminel commis par un Etat pour contribuer à établir faits et responsabilités, en s’appuyant sur la cartographie et l’analyse d’images, l’expertise judiciaire et l’architecture.
Source : MSF
Publié dans Protection de la mission médicale | Tagué , | Laisser un commentaire

How does law protect in war? Online has an improved look and new case studies

The ICRC has overhauled and improved the website of How Does Law Protect In War? Online. The new website has a more user-friendly design and structure and is now accessible on mobile and tablet. Besides, new side navigation menus make browsing through more than 300 real life case studies easier than ever.

How does law protect in war? is the ICRC’s core publication on teaching international humanitarian law (IHL). It provides academics, researchers and students with a wealth of resources, cases and references. New case studies are being updated on a regular basis.

The website is updated with recent case studies, which provides a better insight to how international humanitarian law is implemented in contemporary conflicts. The new case studies include the 2011 NATO intervention in Libya, sexual violence by peacekeeping forces in the Central African Republic and the attack on Kunduz Trauma Centre in Afghanistan among others.

Source : ICRC
Publié dans Définitions | Laisser un commentaire

H.E.L.P. – A training course for managing relief operations in humanitarian crises

What are the most effective means to protect the lives and dignity, and promote the health, of people affected by major disasters or armed conflicts? What must be done to analyse a complex crisis, evaluate needs, assess the resources available and set priorities? What goes into planning and managing a response and, later, evaluating its effectiveness?
How should threats to public health be prevented or responded to, mental and social well-being promoted, and care provided in a way that is effective, sustainable, respectful and ethically sound?
These are some of the complex issues that humanitarian personnel have to tackle, often during emergencies.
HELP – Health Emergencies in Large Populations – is a two-week course on the provision of humanitarian relief during disasters, armed conflicts and other complex crises. It was created in 1986 by the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), in partnership with the World Health Organization (WHO) and the University of Geneva, to professionalize the delivery of humanitarian assistance during emergencies, and to promote professional ethics and humanitarian principles.
These courses have been held in various parts of Europe, Latin America, North America, Africa and Asia. Since 1986, approximately 4,000 health professionals and humanitarian aid workers from the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, United Nations agencies, non-governmental organizations, ministries of health, military medical services and academic institutions have attended the course.
A joint effort
The course is organized by the ICRC in partnership with academic institutions, the WHO and National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. Our current partners are:
In Nairobi, Kenya: The Kenya Red Cross Society and the Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology
In Ouidah, Benin: Institut régional de Santé Publique
In Doha, Qatar:
Qatar University and the Qatar Red Crescent Society
In Baltimore, Maryland, USA:
The Bloomberg School of Public Health and School of Medicine at Johns Hopkins University
In Honolulu, Hawaii, USA:
The Center for Excellence in Disaster Management and Humanitarian Assistance and the University of Hawaii
In Geneva, Switzerland:
The Geneva Centre for Education and Research in Humanitarian Action (CERAH, University of Geneva), and the WHO
In Cuernavaca, Mexico:
Instituto Nacional de Salud Publica
In Fukuoka, Japan:
The Japanese Red Cross Kyushu International College of Nursing
In Havana, Cuba:
Escuela Nacional de Salud Publica and the Cuban Red Cross
In Tehran, Iran
: The School of Public Health at the Tehran University of Medical Sciences and the Iranian Red Crescent
In New Delhi, India: The Public Health Foundation of India, the WHO’s Office for India, the Indian Red Cross Society and the National Disaster Management Authority
Content
The course explores the principles underlying the provision of humanitarian assistance in health emergencies and major health crises, and the methods of providing such assistance. It begins with a consideration of certain key concepts: public health tools, humanitarian principles, professional ethics, and effective decision-making in crises. After that, various aspects of health emergencies are examined: health care, nutrition, economic security, water and habitat, environmental health, prevention and control of communicable diseases, epidemiology in the field, mental health, sexual violence, the safety of humanitarian workers and the stresses to which they are subject, and the imperatives of international humanitarian law. Every section – nutrition, for instance – begins with an overview of the various stages of the planning process: assessing needs, analysing the context, selecting priorities, setting objectives, mobilizing resources, drafting plans, and implementing and evaluating activities.
Depending on the local context and current events, other topics may also be addressed: first aid in the field, war surgery, management of dead bodies, responses to nuclear, radiological, biological or chemical threats, pandemics, protection of medical personnel and facilities during crises, health needs of women, children and other vulnerable groups, and so on.
Participants are encouraged to share their field experiences. The course essentially sets out various approaches to public health that can be adopted by all humanitarian organizations; by doing so, it contributes indirectly to more effective coordination in emergency operations.
Teaching concepts and methods
The course emphasizes problem solving and participatory teaching and learning: analysis of situations and group discussions are key elements. Various teaching methods are used: lectures by experts, selected readings, group work in problem solving, simulations of disasters, field visits, and presentations by the participants themselves. In some places, distance-learning modules allow participants to prepare for or supplement the residential course.
Course dates, registration, fees and credits
For course dates, registration fees and credits, please contact the course coordinator, as indicated in the calendar of courses.
Working languages
The languages in which the course will be taught are listed below, by place.
In Geneva, Fukuoka, Baltimore, Nairobi, Honolulu, New Delhi and Tehran: English
In Cuernavaca and Havana: Spanish
In Doha: Arabic and English
In Ouidah: French
Participants
The course is intended for professionals involved in humanitarian action, who have field experience and hold positions of responsibility in humanitarian operations, particularly the following: health professionals, such as doctors, nurses or nutritionists; public health officers and epidemiologists; water and environmental engineers; legal or policy advisers; and people with strategic and managerial duties.
Candidates working in countries affected by humanitarian crises are given special consideration.
A certificate of attendance is issued to every participant at the end of the course.
The average number of participants per course is 25-30.
Contacts
ICRC, Assistance Division, HELP courses
Email: help@icrc.org
Source : ICRC
Publié dans Définitions | Tagué , | Laisser un commentaire

University professors discuss IHL, Islam, and the protection of people affected by conflict

The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) together with Islamic Research Institute, a think tank of International Islamic University Islamabad organized a regional course on Islam and international humanitarian law (IHL) from 29 November to 02 December 2016.
Twenty six university professors of Islamic studies participated from all over Pakistan and Afghanistan. Participation of Islamic scholars from Afghanistan not only provided an insight to the ongoing dialogue on Islam and IHL from across the border but also an opportunity to develop trans-border academic linkages. The four-day training course was opened by the federal minister of state for religious affairs, Pir Aminul Hasnat Shah who categorically stressed the compatibility of humanitarian law with Islamic legal system. In his address, he lamented the dwindling respect of humanitarian rules in modern day conflicts. He reminded the participants of their ethical obligations to encourage respect and compliance to humanitarian rules in their academic and literati capacities.
Reto Stocker, head of ICRC delegation in Pakistan, mentioned that majority of ICRC’s humanitarian operations are carried out in Muslim countries due to the ongoing conflicts and accompanying humanitarian toll. The only way we can minimize the people’s suffering is by strengthening the adherence to humanitarian principles, derived from Islamic sources, IHL and customary rules. He stressed on the significant role the Islamic scholars can play in their respective societies in influencing the policy makers and weapon bearers in ensuring the respect and dignity of human lives even during difficult times of conflict and violence.
During four days, the participants had detailed discussions and debates on the topics varying from principles of IHL, development of Islamic law of Siyar to significance of Islamic Ethics of War in modern world. Topics like protection of healthcare under Islamic law and IHL, and development of model curriculum on Islam and IHL also received significant attention. Muhammad Saleem, an educationist from Swat, particularly appreciated the informed exchanges which took place among the participants on IHL application. « The role of university teachers in IHL promotion and application through integration in curriculum was the crux of this course in my opinion. »
Whereas, Dr Umair Mehmood Siddiqui from University of Karachi termed his experience as an eye opener towards the significance of this important field of Islamic law. « Since many Muslim countries are trapped in a bitter conflict, promoting Islamic law of war and its parallels in contemporary IHL provides us an opportunity to introduce true Islamic code of conduct during wars. This way we can claim back the space ceded to non-representative forces. »
At the end of the course, three participants volunteered to write an academic report on various topics discussed during the course to be published in ‘Fikr-o-Nazar, an Urdu language research journal published by Islamic Research Institute. The lessons learned from years of cooperation in academic circles – including Islamic scholars – in the Muslim world confirm that knowledge of IHL and of Islamic law is crucial for respect of humanitarian principles. While highlighting similarities between the relevant provisions of Islam and IHL, the ICRC provide documentation and generally encourage Islamic researchers and teachers to study and teach IHL, and publish articles on it.
Source : ICRC
Publié dans DIH | Tagué | Laisser un commentaire

Management of limb injuries during disasters and conflicts

For the millions of people who are trapped within the clutches of conflicts and natural disasters around the world today, the physical and psychological pain can be devastating.
Not only do many people suffer horrendously from direct physical shocks, they are often at risk of compounded injury, because of inadequate or inexistent medical treatment. Currently, a baseline standard of care for the victims of many crises is far from guaranteed.
In fact, poorly prepared and ill-equipped medical teams can actually heighten risks for the most vulnerable, even if such teams have the best of intentions. The medical response of the international community in Haiti in 2010 was a bleak reminder of how inadequate medical care can be a burden for the local population rather than a relief.
I have seen the horrors of conflict reflected in the eyes of people who have lost their limbs in conflict.
If we do not improve our capacity to provide quality medical assistance, the costs will be human lives and long-term disability. And these costs will be immense.
This is why, in 2014, the ICRC launched a new health strategy, which charts a promising path for improving healthcare for the most vulnerable. Not only are we working hard to improve the quality of our medical services, but we are also chartering new ways to scale up and broaden our impact. For example, the ICRC has launched the world’s first humanitarian impact bond: an innovative funding mechanism that draws in new capital to support physical rehabilitation. Many of the people who will benefit from this initiative are those who have lost limbs in conflict. By helping to bridge the substantial gap between needs and resources for physical rehabilitation, we will help more people overcome the destructive impact of losing limbs, and to re-establish productive, dignified lives. It is not only individuals who will benefit, but also societies as a whole, through long-term improvements in social cohesion and economic growth.
The aggressive and brutal impacts of conflict and disaster demand a treatment that is different from common trauma management. Conflict and disaster-specific training of medical staff is therefore crucial to effective relief. The majority of patients suffering during war and disaster – that is, those who reach hospitals alive – have limb injuries, mostly with open and infected fractures. They also frequently suffer from ballistic injury. As the technologies of modern warfare change, it will be imperative that we advance our treatments.
Inadequate treatment will result in unnecessary, preventable complications that threaten life and limb. Not only will poor surgical treatment fail to reduce suffering, it may actually increase harm.
Recognising the potential for crisis to be compounded by poor medical care, in 2015 the ICRC and the WHO undertook to establish a global consensus on treatment standards for the most frequent injuries caused by disaster and conflict: limb injuries. As is the case with so many of our activities, we cannot and should not act alone. We gathered a group of academic, military, and humanitarian specialists, and used the power of collaboration to establish solid standards of treatment.
Funding from the AO Foundation has made this significant endeavor possible, and we are now able to see the fruits of this collaboration. It is my pleasure to be able to launch, today, the field guide on management of limb injuries during disasters and conflicts. This marks an important step in our mission to improve care and mitigate long-term impairment and loss of life. I congratulate the team that worked hard to make this achievement possible.
The launch of this guidebook is not an endpoint, but rather the start of a continuous process. As the world encounters new disasters and conflicts, we will need to ensure that the guidance is up-to-speed and responds to needs as they develop.
The international community has learnt its lessons from Haiti. Looking forward, emergency medical teams will be better prepared to improve the health of people who are suffering from the debilitating impacts of disaster, violence and conflict.
By combining our collective expertise and ingenuity, we have a clear opportunity to deliver the best possible assistance. It is my hope that the international community will continue to share knowledge and build upon these strong foundations, in an effort to provide more effective relief, and to facilitate productive, dignified futures.
The lives of the most vulnerable hang in the balance.
Source : ICRC – Speech given by Mr. Peter Maurer, President of the ICRC. Launch of the Handbook ‘Management of limb injuries during disasters and conflicts’
Publié dans Chirurgie de guerre | Tagué , | Laisser un commentaire

Publication du 3° protocole additionnel au JORF

Le protocole additionnel aux conventions de Genève du 12 août 1949 relatif à l’adoption d’un signe distinctif additionnel (protocole III) (ensemble une annexe), adopté à Genève le 8 décembre 2005, a été publié au Journal officiel de la République française le 19 décembre 2016 : 
Décret no 2016-1773 du 19 décembre 2016 portant publication du protocole additionnel aux conventions de Genève du 12 août 1949 relatif à l’adoption d’un signe distinctif additionnel (protocole III) (ensemble une annexe), adopté à Genève le 8 décembre 2005.

Publié dans DIH | Tagué | Laisser un commentaire

Statement on the protection of health services

The last week has seen the surge of violence in Syria’s city of Aleppo, in which every hospital in the rebel-held east Aleppo has been damaged to the extent of putting them out of service (a statement confirmed by the World Health Organization), leaving more than 250,000 men, women, and children living in east Aleppo without access to health care. In light of this, the International Federation of Medical Students’ Associations (IFMSA) wants to reaffirm its firm stance against violations of International Humanitarian Law and attacks on health care workers, facilities and systems.
Whenever a patient, a nurse, a doctor or any other component of health care system is attacked, be it threats or actual violence, it has not only direct consequences for the affected and their health, but also on the health of the served populations, causing ripples across the delivery of health care. This disruption restricts the access to health care and is therefore a violation of human rights. In fact, violence against health workers and health facilities is a crime under the International Humanitarian Law, causing only death, destruction and disruption of basic health care services.
These attacks in Aleppo are only a small fraction of numerous attacks against health care workers, medical transports and facilities, which have taken place in several countries, like Syria, Afghanistan and Yemen, during the past years. Almost 200 health care workers lost their lives in more than 113 attacks against health care in the first half of 2016 [WHO]. These attacks place a heavy burden on fragile health care systems already affected by conflicts.
Guided and committed to IFMSA’s policy statements on Protection of Health Services and Assuring Access to Medical and Humanitarian aid in Syria (adopted in March 2014), we repeatedly call all responsible actors to give urgent attention to attacks on health care.
We immediately call on the United Nations organs and commissions, which hold governments to account to fulfill their obligations under international human rights and international humanitarian law, to ensure the right to health, a right that is closely and inextricably linked to the rights to life, human dignity, non-discrimination, equality and the prohibition against torture and ill-treatment, is upheld. In order to advance the protection of health services and patients and by these means reach better health for all, there is a broad range of actions to be taken by a number of different actors. Among them, we consider it most important to call for:
All Parties to:
  • Recognize violence against the health sector as violation of International Humanitarian Law
  • Respect International Humanitarian Law & Human Rights law, secure access to health care and safety of involved personnel, vehicles and facilities, and gather data on violence against the health sector in and out of conflict zones
  • Highlight the occurrence of violence towards the health sector in reports on the health situation during disasters
  • Unblock the humanitarian assistance to help the population that is caught up in the violence
Health Sector (including Medical Students) to:
  • Take up own responsibilities, such as adhering to the Declaration of Geneva and treat every person in need according to his/her personal needs, without discrimination based on age, disease or disability, creed, ethnic origin, gender, nationality, political affiliation, race, sexual orientation, social standing or any other factor
  • Advocate for better health services protection
  • Promote the inclusion of disaster risk reduction knowledge in relevant sections of school curricula
  • Promote International Humanitarian Law, human rights and the Declaration of Geneva and raise awareness on the topic among medical students, medical professionals as well as civil society
  • Share information about first aid and medical procedures on platforms that people in Aleppo have access to, in order to encourage the ability of saving more lives
The International Federation of Medical Students Associations (IFMSA) envisions a world in which medical students unite for global health and are equipped with the knowledge, skills and values to take on health leadership roles locally and globally. Founded in 1951, it is one of the worlds oldest and largest student-run organizations. It represents, connects and engages every day with an inspiring and engaging network of 1.3 million medical students from 130 national member organizations in 122 countries around the globe.
Source: Safeguarding health in conflict
Publié dans Protection de la mission médicale | Laisser un commentaire

African students practice international humanitarian law at continental competition

The 16th annual All Africa International Humanitarian Law Competition took place in Arusha, Tanzania from 12-19 November 2016. This year’s competition had a total of eleven teams from nine African countries. Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda, Sudan, Ethiopia, South Africa, Nigeria and Zimbabwe were represented. Each of the participating teams had three students.
The students were put in fictitious but realistic scenarios in which they were required to use their knowledge of international humanitarian law to achieve certain objectives like negotiating for humanitarian access or convincing senior diplomats of their legal arguments. The teams also underwent daily classroom study followed by court submissions in which the judges evaluated their grasp of what they had been taught.
According to Paul Kunsa, a student from Uganda, the competition  »brought out the pragmatic part of law, » since  »you get to act as a worker for the ICRC, you get to work as a medical personnel so you get to know the actual challenges in getting out the law to the people. »
The teams were judged by a panel of experts. Hillary Kiboro, one of the judges from ICRC, noted the teams’ skill sets made judging « very tough » because all the teams « displayed significant growth » throughout the competition. Uganda Christian University emerged as the winners, and Midlands State University from Zimbabwe came second during a final session held at the African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights.
This was the first time that the ICRC collaborated with the African Court to host the competition as well as to be part of the judging process. Other judges were from the East African Court of Justice, the United Nations Mechanism for International Criminal Tribunals, and the Tanzania High Court.

The 16th annual All Africa International Humanitarian Law Competition witnessed a total of 11 teams from 9 African countries. CC BY-NC-ND / ICRC / Mike Mina

Although the participants are law students, this was the first time for most to argue and witness a  »real » courtroom session. Appreciating this experience, Nibras Abdalbasit, a student from Sudan, explained that  »there is no such thing as winning and losing, there is always learning ».
The All Africa International Humanitarian Law Competition is organized and sponsored by the ICRC Regional Delegation in Nairobi for Anglophone countries in Africa. The competition is designed to support ICRC’s mandate to promote and develop IHL, focusing on the interplay between IHL and the policies that shape humanitarian action.
The event was previously called the All Africa Moot Court Competition in International Humanitarian Law but was this year renamed to reflect the wider scope of the activities in the competition, outside the court sessions.
Source : ICRC
Publié dans DIH | Tagué , | Laisser un commentaire

International council of nurses calls for protection of healthcare workers

Speaking at the 5th International Conference on Violence in the Health Sector, Howard Catton, Director of Nursing and Health Policy at the International Council of Nurses (ICN), called for increased protection of health workers through legislation, zero tolerance policies, security measure, education and improved working environments.
Held from 26 to 28 October 2016 in Dublin, Ireland on the theme “Broadening our view – responding together”, the International Conference on Violence in the Health Sector is the largest global conference dedicated to work related aggressions and violence within the health services. It addresses a significant and pervasive concern that not only affects the health of the workforce but also impacts negatively the course of care delivery and patient outcomes.
This year, the conference took a multi-dimensional approach and explored the biological, spiritual, experiential, legal, political and societal perspectives of violence. This broad outlook aims at encouraging the development of more collaborative response strategies and sensitizing stakeholders to the issue.
Mr. Catton spoke about nurses’ experience of violence and abuse in the workplace and strategies to prevent and mitigate harm. He highlighted the particular case of healthcare workers who live and work in war zones and areas of conflict. In Syria, healthcare workers, facilities, equipment and transport are now deliberately being targeted as a military strategy. ICN, in partnership with the World Medical Association, recently issued a statement strongly condemning this and calling for respect for human rights. ICN will continue to speak up where we see such violations.
Source : Safeguarding health in conflict
Publié dans Protection de la mission médicale | Tagué , | Laisser un commentaire

Défendre les principes fondamentaux de la Cour pénale internationale

Lors de leur assemblée annuelle, les États parties ne doivent pas compromettre les principes de la justice face au risque de nouveaux retraits
(La Haye, le 16 novembre 2016) – Les pays membres de la Cour pénale internationale (CPI) devraient protéger la capacité de la Cour à rendre justice de façon complète et équitable pour les pires crimes internationaux, a déclaré Human Rights Watch aujourd’hui. Les retraits récents de la Cour par trois pays africains soulèvent des inquiétudes quant au risque que les membres de la CPI pourraient faire des concessions sur les principes fondamentaux de la Cour lors de leur réunion annuelle du 16 au 24 novembre 2016, afin de dissuader d’autres pays de quitter la Cour.
En octobre et novembre, les gouvernements du Burundi, de la Gambie et de l’Afrique du Sud ont annoncé leurs retraits du Statut de Rome, le traité fondateur de la CPI. Ces retraits sont intervenus dans un contexte de réaction négative à l’égard de la CPI dans certains pays africains, notamment le Soudan et le Kenya. Les dirigeants de ces deux pays ont fait face à des accusations devant la Cour, et l’Union africaine (UA) a appelé à l’immunité de poursuites contre les chefs d’État et autres hauts fonctionnaires en exercice.
« Les retraits de la CPI risquent de devenir une monnaie d’échange pour les pays qui cherchent à rendre le monde plus sûr pour les dictateurs abusifs », a déclaré Elizabeth Evenson, directrice adjointe du programme Justice internationale à Human Rights Watch. « Toutefois, plusieurs États africains ont déjà signalé qu’ils n’avaient aucune intention de quitter la Cour, et tous les pays membres de la CPI devraient indiquer clairement que le mandat de ce tribunal n’est pas à vendre. »
Le Nigeria, le Sénégal, le Botswana, la Côte d’Ivoire, le Malawi, la Sierra Leone et la Zambie, à la suite des retraits, ont publiquement indiqué leur opposition aux retraits de la CPI. Deux cents organisations ont adressé le 14 novembre 2016 une lettre aux présidents de tous les pays membres africains de la CPI, pour appeler leurs gouvernements à continuer de soutenir la Cour. Parmi ces organisations figurent plus d’une centaine d’organisations locales basées dans plus de 25 pays africains et une centaine d’organisations pour la seule République démocratique du Congo, en plus d’organisations internationales.
Les pays membres de la CPI devraient réaffirmer leur soutien à la Cour dans des déclarations lors de la réunion annuelle de l’Assemblée des États Parties, en particulier pendant son segment d’ouverture de haut niveau, a déclaré Human Rights Watch.
Ne pas permettre à la position officielle d’un individu au sein d’un gouvernement de le protéger contre des poursuites, une caractéristique des tribunaux internationaux depuis les procès de la deuxième guerre mondiale à Nuremberg, est un élément fondamental de la mission de la Cour d’assurer la justice pour les crimes les plus graves. Laisser les leaders au pouvoir s’en tirer créerait des incitations perverses à ce que certaines personnes essayent de conserver le pouvoir indéfiniment pour éviter des poursuites.
Un tel changement ne permettrait pas de combler les lacunes réelles de la crédibilité du système judiciaire international, notamment les blocages politiques au sein du Conseil de sécurité des Nations Unies et l’incapacité des principaux pouvoirs comme les États-Unis à signer le traité, a déclaré Human Rights Watch.
« La question du risque d’une justice caractérisée par “deux poids, deux mesures” doit certes être abordée », a déclaré Elizabeth Evenson. « Mais la bonne réponse est d’élargir la portée du champ de travail de la CPI et d’insister sur une action cohérente en faveur de la justice de la part du Conseil de sécurité de l’ONU. Se retirer de la CPI ou porter atteinte à sa capacité de juger des dirigeants en exercice ne sert qu’à saper la justice pour les victimes des crimes les plus graves. »
Des négociations pour contester la capacité de la CPI de poursuivre des dirigeants en exercice pourraient se dérouler lors de la réunion de l’Assemblée des États Parties. D’autres actions de l’assemblée, à défaut d’amendements au traité fondateur, comme des résolutions, risquent encore d’être perçues comme entravant l’indépendance des juges, a déclaré Human Rights.
Les pays membres auront un certain nombre d’autres questions importantes à leur disposition lors de la réunion, y compris l’établissement du budget de la cour et le renforcement de la coopération des pays avec la Cour. Human Rights Watch, dans une note d’information avec des recommandations pour les pays membres, a déclaré que les membres de la CPI devraient tenir une session spéciale lors de la réunion de 2017 afin de faire le bilan des réalisations de la Cour et réfléchir au soutien politique nécessaire pour renforcer son rôle. Le traité de la CPI fêtera son 20ème anniversaire en 2018.
L’organe de direction de l’Assemblée devrait veiller à ce que des mesures soient prises pour répondre aux récentes constatations judiciaires de non-coopération dans les enquêtes et les poursuites de la CPI. Cela comprend une constatation par les juges que le gouvernement du Kenya n’a pas coopéré pleinement dans l’affaire maintenant retirée contre le président Uhuru Kenyatta.
Les pays africains ont conduit les efforts pour établir la CPI dans les années 90, en plaçant la responsabilité des crimes d’atrocité au premier plan de l’agenda international. La CPI a dû faire face à diverses tentatives pour faire échec à ses travaux depuis que son traité a pris effet en 2002. L’administration américaine de George W. Bush a lancé le premier défi. Entre 2002 et 2005, Washington a découragé activement les pays de se joindre à la CPI et a contraint des pays à conclure ce que l’on a appelé des « accords bilatéraux d’immunité » afin de protéger les ressortissants américains contre les poursuites devant la Cour.
La CPI est la première cour permanente du monde chargée de traduire en justice les personnes responsables de crimes de guerre, de crimes contre l’humanité et de génocide lorsque les tribunaux nationaux ne peuvent ou ne veulent pas le faire. Le Statut de Rome a créé l’Assemblée des États Parties pour assurer la surveillance de l’administration de la cour. Elle est composée de représentants de chaque pays membre et elle doit se réunir au moins une fois par an.
En se retirant de la CPI, le gouvernement sud-africain a invoqué un prétendu conflit entre ses obligations envers la CPI et sa capacité d’interagir avec les dirigeants dans son rôle de garant régional de la paix. Un tribunal sud-africain a conclu que le gouvernement avait violé ses obligations nationales et internationales en omettant d’arrêter le président du Soudan, Omar al-Bashir, fugitif de la CPI, lors de sa visite dans le pays pour un sommet de l’UA en juin 2015. Al-Bashir fait l’objet de deux mandats d’arrêt de la CPI, pour crimes présumés de génocide, crimes de guerre et crimes contre l’humanité commis dans la région du Darfour au Soudan.
La compétence de la Cour pour les crimes internationaux présumés peut être déclenchée de trois manières. Les pays membres de la CPI ou le Conseil de sécurité peuvent saisir la Procureure de la CPI d’une situation, c’est-à-dire d’un ensemble spécifique d’événements, ou bien le Bureau du Procureur de la CPI peut demander à sa propre initiative l’autorisation d’une chambre préliminaire de juges de la CPI pour ouvrir une enquête.
Des enquêtes en République centrafricaine, en République démocratique du Congo, au Mali et dans le nord de l’Ouganda ont été ouvertes à la demande du gouvernement. Les situations au Darfour et en Libye ont été renvoyées par le Conseil de sécurité, tandis que la Procureure de la CPI a demandé aux juges de la CPI d’ouvrir les enquêtes en Côte d’Ivoire, en Géorgie et au Kenya.
La Procureure examine également un certain nombre d’autres situations dans les pays du monde entier. Il s’agit notamment de l’Afghanistan, du Burundi, de la Colombie, du Gabon, de la Guinée, du Nigeria, de la Palestine, des abus allégués des forces armées britanniques en Irak, et de l’Ukraine.
« Il est triste de voir le gouvernement sud-africain se tenir aux côtés des idéologues des premières années Bush », a conclu Elizabeth Evenson. « À l’heure de divisions profondes et de la multiplication des crises des droits humains dans le monde entier, la CPI est plus nécessaire que jamais et les membres de la CPI devraient la protéger. »
Source : relief web
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